Milestones and mileposts are stones or short pillars set up at the roadside indicating the distance in miles from that point to a particular place or places. The first milestones in England were erected by the Romans, who constructed good metalled roads to enable them to move soldiers and supplies quickly across the country. They measured out distances to assist with timing and efficiency and marked every 1,000 double paces with a large cylindrical stone. 117 of these stones still survive in the UK, although most of them are no longer in their original locations. The Latin word for thousand is ‘mille’ and the Roman mile was 1618 yards long. In England the statute mile of 1,760 yards was defined by Act of Parliament in 1593 but various other miles continued in use in many parts of Britain until the 19th century.
In 1697 an Act of Parliament enabled Justices of the Peace to order the erection of inscribed waymarkers known as guide stoops or guideposts at the intersection of paths in remote moorland areas. These stone guide stoops, which often resembled farm gateposts, pointed the way to the nearest market town.
From the late 17th century to the 1840s Turnpike Trusts were set up by Acts of Parliament to improve the state of Britain’s roads, which often became impassable in the winter months. Local groups of wealthy people paid for improved roads to be built and then charged people tolls for using them. The turnpike milestones of the 18th and early 19th centuries used statute miles. At first these milestones were made of stone or were engraved in walls of buildings but the later ones were made of cast iron. After 1767 milestones were compulsory on all turnpike roads to inform travellers, to help coaches keep to schedules and for the calculation of charges for the changes of horses at coaching inns.
Most milestones and mileposts were removed or defaced at the beginning of the Second World War to confuse the Germans in the event of an invasion and not all were replaced afterwards. Some have been demolished more recently during road widening schemes and others have been damaged by vehicles colliding with them or by hedge cutting equipment. However several have survived in North Somerset.
In East Street, Banwell there is a building which housed the town’s fire engine from the late 19th century until the 1980s. The inscription over the main door reads as follows:
“This building is presented by Miss Fazakerley of Banwell Abbey and Fazakerley House, Lancashire, being the property of Banwell for ever to be used for the housing of the fire-engine belonging to that Parish. 19th Day of December 1887 in the year of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria.”
Miss Emily Fazakerley was a wealthy, generous and eccentric lady. She was born on Anglesey in 1840 and later lived at Denbigh Castle in North Wales. She moved to Banwell for health reasons in 1883 but died in 1888 at the age of 48. She was buried in London.
Miss Fazakerley paid for a new horse drawn fire engine and for uniforms for the crew. She also provided instruments and uniforms for a village brass band. The new fire engine replaced the wooden-wheeled hand-drawn machine, which was made by James Manley of Redcliffe, Bristol in 1810 and stored in the nearby church. The 1810 fire engine had two reciprocating 4 inch bore and 8 inch stroke pumps. It could deliver 44 gallons of water per minute to a height of 80 feet. Four men were needed to man it and many volunteers forming a bucket chain were required to refill the engine’s reservoirs with water.
The fire engine house also had a rest room and the fire bell, which was used to summon the firemen from their homes and workplaces, is still hanging on the roof.
The building is still used by the Banwell and District Volunteer Fire Unit.
Old Poor Law The concept of parochial poor relief dates back to the late 14th century. Over the next four centuries several Acts of Parliament were passed, which sought to address the issue of providing work for the able-bodied poor and basic care for poor people who were elderly, sick, disabled or orphaned and unable to work. Poor relief, which was funded by a tax on local property owners, was dispensed mostly as “out relief” in the form of food, clothing, fuel, rent payments or money to people in need living in their own homes. In a few places workhouses were founded by local Acts of Parliament from the late 17th century onwards.
The 1782 Relief of the Poor Act, which was also known as Gilbert’s Act after its proposer Thomas Gilbert, allowed neighbouring parishes to work together in unions to construct joint workhouses. These workhouses were only supposed to house the elderly, sick, disabled and orphaned. The able-bodied poor were to be found employment near their own homes. In many cases the workhouses were ordinary local houses rented for the purpose. The unions were overseen by Boards of Guardians. One Guardian was elected from each parish. Their work was overseen by a Visitor, who was appointed by local magistrates. Around 100 unions were formed as a result of Gilbert’s Act but none were in Somerset.
New Poor Law The Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 was designed to reduce public spending on poverty. Under the terms of the act England and Wales were divided into unions of parishes. Poor relief, which was funded by local taxation, was administered in each union by an elected Board of Guardians. Each union was required to build a workhouse to house the people in its area who were in need of help. In some places the unions took over existing workhouses, while in others new ones were constructed, although some places were slow to build them.
Families were split up on entering workhouses, as men, women and children were housed separately. Inmates were given a uniform to wear and received basic food rations. Sleeping accommodation was usually in large dormitories. Children were given some education. However conditions in the workhouses were supposed to be harsher than those for the poor outside their walls, in order to discourage people from entering them and thereby saving the parishes money. Parish relief was no longer supposed to be given to the poor living in their own homes. Many workhouses were overcrowded and insanitary, with the result that infectious diseases spread easily among the inmates. Able bodied inmates were made to work hard, often doing unpleasant and monotonous jobs such as picking oakum or breaking stones.
Living conditions slowly improved after the 1880s. Over time workhouses evolved into orphanages and hospitals for elderly and infirm people and those with mental health problems or learning disabilities. In 1929 Poor Law Unions were abolished and their powers were passed to County and County Borough Councils. Workhouses were renamed Public Assistance Institutions. The workhouse system was replaced by the National Health Service in 1948.
More information about the history of the poor law and detailed histories of individual workhouses can be found on this website: http://www.workhouses.org.uk/
Somerset was divided into 16 Unions. Two unions covered the area that is now North Somerset – Axbridge and Bedminster (later Long Ashton).
Bedminster Poor Law Union was formed on 11th April 1836. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of 34 Guardians, who represented its constituent parishes:
Abbot’s Leigh, Backwell, Barrow Gurney, Bedminster, Bishopsworth (from the 1890s), Brockley, Chelvey, Clapton, Clevedon, Dundry, Easton in Gordano or St George’s, Flax Bourton, Kenn, Kingston Seymour, Long Ashton, Nailsea, North Weston (from 1894), Portbury, Portishead, Tickenham, Walton in Gordano, Weston in Gordano, Winford, Wraxall, Yatton.
Bedminster Union workhouse was built in 1837-8 on what is now Old Weston Road at Flax Bourton at a cost of £6,600. It could accommodate 300 inmates and was designed by architects George Gilbert Scott and William Bonython Moffatt. They also designed many other workhouses in the south-west including those at Williton, Bideford, Newton Abbot, and Tavistock.
There were three parallel buildings: an entrance block with a central archway, which was single storeyed; the main building with a central hub and an infirmary at the back with a washhouse and workshops at each side of it. There was also a school, more workshops and an isolation hospital. In 1860 a chapel was built to the south west of the entrance block. It was paid for by William Gibbs of Tyntesfield, designed by John Norton and dedicated to St George.
The Bedminster Union was renamed Long Ashton Union in 1899. Between 1929 and 1956, the workhouse became Cambridge House, a Somerset County Council run institution for people with learning disabilities. It was known as Farleigh Hospital after 1956 and closed in about 1993.
The workhouse site has now been redeveloped for use as offices, although most of the original buildings have been preserved. The office park is now called Farleigh Court.
Axbridge Poor Law Union was formed on 14th May 1836. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of 49 Guardians, who represented its constituent parishes:
Axbridge, Badgworth, Banwell, Berrow, Biddisham, Blagdon, Bleadon, Brean, East Brent, South Brent (Brent Knoll), Burnham with Aston Morris, Burrington, Butcombe, Chapel Allerton, Charterhouse, Cheddar, Christon, Churchill, Compton Bishop, Congresbury, Highbridge (formed out of Burnham with Aston Morris in 1894),Hutton, Kewstoke, Locking, Loxton, Lympsham, Mark, Nyland with Batcombe, Puxton, Rowberrow, Shipham, Uphill, Weare, Wedmore, Weston-super-Mare , Wick St Lawrence, Winscombe, Worle, Wrington with Broadfield.
The Axbridge Union workhouse was erected in 1837 on the south side of West Street in Axbridge at a cost of £4,496.17s.6d. The workhouse could accommodate 250 inmates. The architect was Samuel T Welch, who was also the architect of workhouses at Clifton and Wells. In 1903, a new infirmary with 72 beds, designed by Mr A. Powell of Bristol was erected at the north-east of the workhouse at a cost of just under £7,000. The site later became St John’s Hospital. After its closure in 1993, the main building was converted into residential flats and is now called St John’s Court.
Records for the Axbridge and Bedminster/Long Ashton Union Workhouses are kept in the Somerset Heritage Centre at Norton Fitzwarren near Taunton. Inmates of workhouses are also shown on census returns.
Before 1840 most items of post had to be paid for by the recipient and the charges depended on how far they were being sent and on how many pieces of paper they contained. Postage costs were too high for most people to afford. In 1837 social reformer Rowland Hill proposed reforms to the postal system, which included the introduction of a single postage rate of one penny for all standard weight (up to half an ounce) letters. This would be paid by the sender. The world’s first adhesive postage stamp, the Penny Black, was introduced in 1840.
However people wishing to send letters had to take them to the nearest letter receiving office, which could be miles away. A growth in use of the postal service after 1840 led to the need for many more convenient locations where stamped letters could be deposited. The novelist Anthony Trollope, who worked for the General Post Office, saw roadside post boxes in use in France. He trialled the use of locked cast-iron pillar boxes with regular collection times on Jersey in 1852 and they were introduced to mainland Britain in 1853.
Some of the early post boxes were hexagonal in shape but a wide variety of designs were used. Boxes inserted into walls were introduced in 1857. In 1859 an improved cylindrical shape pillar box, with its posting aperture located beneath a cap to protect it from rainwater, was introduced for standard use. By 1859 the colour for post boxes was standardised as dark green but this colour made them difficult for people to find them. The standard colour was changed to bright red in 1874, although it was another decade before all post boxes were repainted red.
Lamp post boxes were introduced in 1896. These were designed to be attached to lamp posts but they were also attached to telegraph poles, set on their own posts or set into walls.
Around 800 different designs for post boxes have been used so far and new designs are still being produced.
Post boxes usually have the insignia of the monarch reigning at the time of placement. 60% of British post boxes currently in use have EIIR for Queen Elizabeth II or a Scottish crown on them, 15% have the insignia of King George V and the remainder in descending order are from the reigns of George VI, Victoria, Edward VII and Edward VIII. There are only 171 from the very short reign of Edward VIII in 1936 but one of these is located on the junction of Kenn Road with St Michael’s Avenue in Clevedon.
One day in around 1923 a stray spaniel wandered into Weston-super-Mare Railway Station. He was adopted by the staff who worked there. They named him Dandy, provided him with a kennel and put a charity collection box around his neck.
He spent the next five years mingling with people on the station platforms. By the time he died on 16th January 1928, he had raised many hundreds of pounds for the GWR Widows and Orphans Fund. He was buried at the end of one of the platforms.
A memorial plaque to Dandy can still be seen mounted on the wall in the waiting room at the railway station.
In June 1830 Steep Holm was sold by William Willes to John Baker, a Somerset solicitor. On the east coast of Steep Holm he built a small harbour around the Landing Beach, an inn just above the high tide level and a cliff side cottage higher up to house boatmen, fisherman and labourers. Cliff Cottage and the inn were both nearing completion by July 1832. The inn was built of island stone and rendered. It was three storeys high with a castellated roof balustrade and a small walled garden. The lower storey was built directly against the rock face. On the north side a large water catchment tank was built. In October 1833 John Baker sold the island to Colonel Charles Kemeys Kemeys-Tynte.
In the early 1840s John and Betty Harse leased Steep Holm for a few years. Betty ran the inn while John farmed.
The tenancy of Steep Holm was acquired by Frederick and Mary Harris c1846. They moved to the island with their children Emily, Mary, Frederick Henry and Rosa. Fred Harris was an accomplished sailor and he ferried visitors to and from the island in his own boat. Sailors, waiting in the Bristol Channel for high tide to enable them to sail into Bristol or the Welsh ports, also frequented the inn. In 1851 Rosa Harris drowned off Steep Holm, aged 4½ .
In 1854, while on a trip to the Newport area, Fred exchanged his Newfoundland dog for a young Russian bear. In 1857 the bear severely injured a young Italian governess called Ann Caroline Besozzi, who was visiting the island. In 1858 a civil action was held at Bristol Assizes to obtain compensation for the governess. Fred Harris was ordered to pay her £50 in addition to the court costs for both sides. He failed to pay and the following year he was called to Taunton County Court where he pleaded insolvency and the judge believed him, although in reality he had transferred all his assets to other people.
In 1859 there was a great storm in the Bristol Channel. Fred Harris’s boat Mystery was badly damaged and Steep Holm’s harbour wall collapsed, which made it much harder for people to land on the island. The wall was never rebuilt.
In 1866 the inn was enlarged by the building of an adjacent three storey annexe to house workers building the forts on the island. The inn prospered from 1866-8 with all the extra resident customers.
By 1871 Fred and Mary Harris were managing the Royal Claremont Pier Hotel in Weston-super-Mare, which was renamed Harris’s. The Steep Holm Inn was being run by Frederick Henry’s wife Ann. In 1872 their daughter was born on the island. She was named Beatrice Steep Holmes Anne Cooper Harris.
In May 1884 Frederick Henry Harris was summoned to Axbridge Petty Session Court to answer charges of selling alcohol without a licence. He argued that Steep Holm was not part of Somerset and that in the 38 years his family had run the inn they had never been asked to obtain a licence. The case was dismissed but the Inland Revenue appealed to the High Court and in 1885 they won. The Harris family gave up their tenancy of the island the same year but soon after they leased Flat Holm and ran an inn there.
Mrs Caroline Davies and her two adult sons Harold and Wallace/Wallis rented Steep Holm in 1885. They ran day excursions and fishing and rabbit shooting trips to the island and also grew crops and raised farm livestock. However their business was not a success and they sold their stock and equipment to Thomas Henry Waite-Hall from Glastonbury the following year. He had left the island by 1891 and the inn was closed for the last time.
By the 1930s the inn was derelict and during the refortification of the island in 1941 the walls of the inn and annexe were demolished to make way for a narrow gauge railway. The walls were rebuilt and the inn reroofed in the early 1980s by the Kenneth Allsop Trust for use as a wardens’ depot and store but it proved to be too damp to be of much use.
The refortification of Steep Holm and neighbouring Flat Holm began in July 1941 to protect convoy ships lying at anchor in the Bristol Channel waiting for high tide to enable them to unload their cargoes at the various ports along the Severn Estuary.
On Steep Holm twojetties were constructed, an iron one at the Landing Beach on the east coast and a smaller stone one at South Landing.
Twobatteries were built on the top of the island. Steep Holm North was on the site of the Victorian Summit Battery in the north west of the island and had clear views across to Flat Holm and Lavernock Point on the Welsh coast. Steep Holm South was on the site of Garden Battery in the south east of the island, which had views over the whole of Bridgwater Bay. Each battery had two separate emplacements for 6 inch ex-Navy guns. The batteries were roofed with “plastic armour”, which was a bituminous cement mixed with flint and granite chippings.
Arocket launcher was constructed at Split Rock Battery. Observation posts were built at Rudder Rock and Steep Holm South Batteries.
Twoinstrument pillars were built, one at each battery. Royal Artillery spotters mounted their Depression Range-Finders on them, which enabled them to observe targets and correct the fall of fire. They were surrounded by blast walls.
The remains of the inn and Cliff Cottage were demolished to make way for anarrow gauge railway, which was used for winching wagons of sand, cement, supplies and equipment up the Zigzag Path from the Landing Beach to the summit and across the plateau to Steep Holm North Battery. A separate track was also laid from the South Landing up to the summit. The railway track used had been captured from the Germans on the Western Front during the First World War. Three winch houses were built at the top of the three sections of the Zigzag Path. An open winch was constructed at the top of the path down to the South Landing. Indian soldiers with mules transported stores from ships to the summit of the island until the narrow gauge railway was completed. The mules were later used to pull the wagons along the level sections of the narrow gauge railway.
Up to 300 men were stationed on Steep Holm during the construction phase. Officers were housed in the Victorian barracks but lower ranks had to live in tents until Nissen huts were constructed.
Foursearchlight posts were built around the island: at South Landing; above Calf Rock; above Rudder Rock and on the north coast to the north east of Steep Holm North Battery. The purpose of these was to look out for German E-boats sailing up the Bristol Channel. The top of the island was too high to allow the searchlights to pan across the sea, so the searchlight posts were built low on the cliffs. Long flights of concrete steps had to be built to reach two of them. There were 120 steps leading down the Rudder Rock searchlight post and 208 steps down to the post on the north coast. The posts and the steps to them were painted with zebra camouflage to disguise them. TwoGenerator houses were built to power the searchlights.
Two 3,200 gallonwater tanks were erected on the top of the island, one for fresh water and one for salt water. Water was pumped up to the summit from a supply ship.
The refortification of Steep Holm was completed by October 1942. However the ex-Navy guns were never needed against enemy ships and they were useless against air attacks.
By the end of 1943 the threat to ships in the Bristol Channel had reduced significantly, so the island was relegated to “care and maintenance” status and most of the troops were moved off the island.
After the end of the Second World War German prisoners of war dismantled and removed most of the railway winches and trolleys and demolished the wartime piers.
Steep Holm at war: Rodney Legg. Wincanton Press, 1991
The Steep Holm Guide and Trail. Published by the Kenneth Allsop Memorial Trust, 2014
Steep Holm’s Pioneers: Stan and Joan Rendall. Published by the authors, 2003
George Fiott Day was one of the first recipients of the Victoria Cross. He was born in Southampton in 1819 or 1820 and joined the Royal Navy as a volunteer in 1833. The first ship he sailed on was wrecked off the coast of Patagonia in 1835. He then served off the west coast of Africa, followed by six and a half years in the Mediterranean Sea from 1838. He returned to the coast of Africa for three years from 1845 and then travelled across to the eastern coast of South America. In 1854 he sailed to the Baltic Sea and then to the Mediterranean Sea.
The Crimean War was in progress when George arrived as a Lieutenant on HMS Recruit in the Black Sea in 1855. On the night of 17th September 1855 he went ashore alone at Genitchi, Crimea on a reconnaissance mission to check out the batteries, bridge and Russian gunboats on the Arabat Spit in the Sea of Azov. He had to cross 4 or 5 miles of swampy ground and wade through water, which was knee deep in places, in order to get close enough to see the enemy position. It was only lightly defended and undermanned. He decided that a surprise attack would be feasible but when he carried out another reconnaissance mission on the night of 19th September he discovered that the gunboats were fully manned and that the Russians were on the alert. On this occasion the weather was cold and squally, his mission took much longer and he returned exhausted from it. The planned attack was called off. George Fiott Day was awarded the Victoria Cross in 1857 for his reconnaissance missions at Genitchi. He was promoted to the rank of Commander in November 1855.
George Fiott Day served off Africa again in 1857 and in 1858 he sailed to China. He married Mary Ruddell-Todd in 1858 and they had three daughters. He retired due to ill health in 1867 with the rank of Captain. In 1875 he was appointed Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) by Queen Victoria. The same year he moved to Weston-super-Mare with his wife and daughters. He died at the Anchor Head Hotel in Claremont Crescent, Weston-super-Mare on 18th December 1876, aged 56. He was buried in Milton Road Cemetery in Weston-super-Mare but his grave had no headstone until 2002 when a ceremony was held to unveil one.
Gunpowder was the only explosive available for military use and for blasting in mines and quarries until the mid-19th century.
Production of gunpowder is thought to have begun at Littleton between Winford and Chew Magna in around 1650. The production of gunpowder was hazardous, so the site chosen was away from existing towns and villages but reasonably close to the port of Bristol, to enable the export of the finished product. The Winford Brook, a tributary of the River Chew, provided a source of power for watermills. There were two other gunpowder mills in Somerset: one at Woolley to the north of Bath and one at Moreton, which now lies beneath Chew Valley Lake.
Gunpowder was produced by mixing saltpetre (potassium nitrate) with sulphur and charcoal. The saltpetre, which was imported from India by the East India Company, was boiled, drained, washed and crystallised to refine it. The charcoal and sulphur were boiled and sieved. Once prepared the three ingredients were mixed, moistened, glazed, pressed and heat dried. The gunpowder was then packed into 100lb barrels. Most of the gunpowder produced at Littleton was sold in Bristol to merchant and privateer ships or exported via Bristol to Africa and America. The remainder was sold for use in local mines and quarries and for private uses such as hunting.
At the height of production in the mid-18th century Littleton was the largest gunpowder producer in the South West of England. It had three watermills located in a row between the Winford Brook and a 250 metre long clay lined mill pond, which had been constructed to provide a head of water for the mills. The three mills were used for different processes:
Crushing – preparing the raw materials
Incorporating – mixing the ingredients
Corning – forming the gunpowder into pellets
A house was built to house the manager of the mill, a terrace of three cottages was built to house the millworkers, a clock tower was erected and other buildings were constructed to store and dry the gunpowder. There was also a cooperage on site.
In the 1750s the mill at Littleton was owned and operated by five Bristol merchants led by Jeremiah Ames. In 1755 a fire at the Littleton Gunpowder Mill destroyed most of the buildings but they were later rebuilt. The site was owned by the Strachey family in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Production of gunpowder at Littleton ceased in the 1820s after the end of the Napoleonic Wars. The site then became a farm: the manager’s house became the farmhouse, the storage facilities were used as a barn and the watermills fell into ruin. The farmhouse (which is still called Powdermill Farm), barn and the millworkers’ cottages are on private land but can be viewed from the public road to Upper Littleton.
Dole tables were stone tables or ledges usually located in church porches and more rarely in churchyards. From medieval times until the 16th or 17th centuries they were used for settling contracts and the payment of debts, bequests, tithes and church dues. They were also used to distribute money or bread to the needy of the parish and passing travellers in need of help. Very few dole tables have survived to the present day. There are three in the historic county of Somerset: at Dundry in North Somerset; Nynehead near Wellington and Oake near Taunton.
Dundry’s Dole Table is located in the churchyard of St Michael’s Parish Church. It is a 1.5 metre cube of locally quarried Dundry Stone/Freestone, which is an Inferior Oolite limestone. An alternative theory is that it isn’t a dole table but is a sample of dressed Dundry Stone, which acted as a demonstration of its qualities as a building stone.
Dundry Stone, which contains many fossils, especially ammonites, was quarried and mined around Dundry for use as a building stone from Roman times until the 1920s. The quarries are now important wildlife habitats. The ornate tower of Dundry Church was built of Dundry Stone in the 15th century and is said to have been paid for by Bristol’s Society of Merchant Venturers. The church is on the top of a hill and the tower can be seen from most parts of Bristol and it also acted as a landmark for ships sailing up the Bristol Channel.
Dundry Stone was also used in the building of St Thomas’s and St Mary Redcliffe Churches in Bristol; Cardiff Castle and Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff; Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin and other parish churches across Ireland.